Associate Professor Manuka Arnold Henare

PhD (VUW), BA (Hons)(VUW) and BA


Mānuka joined the University of Auckland Business School in 1996. He is Associate Professor in Māori Business Development in the Department of Management and International Business and recently completed (December 2014) a twelve year term as Associate Dean (Māori and Pacific Development). Mānuka is also the foundation Director of the Mira Szászy Research Centre for Māori and Pacific Economic Development and leads a number of multidisciplinary research project teams. He is board member of the University of Auckland, Centre of Development Studies, and the Centre of Pacific Studies. He was until 2013 the Academic Coordinator of Te Tohu Huanga Māori Graduate Programme in Business Development within the Graduate School of Management and teaches Māori business and economic history, strategy, and management of tribal enterprises. Mānuka completed a seven year term as government appointee to the Council of Te Wānanga o Aotearoa, NZ's largest tertiary institution, and a five year term as Council member of the Manukau Institute of Technology (May 2015). In 2014 he was appointed a member of the Royal Society of New Zealand Humanities and Social Science Advisory Panel. He is, since 1999, a Visiting Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge University, UK, and in 2015 did further research and study leave in Cambridge. He has advised New Zealand government departments, local authorities and other institutions on ambicultural  or bicultural governance and management policies and also served on government advisory committees on development assistance, peace and disarmament, archives, history, social policy, environmental risk management and number of other ministerial appointments. He was previously a lecturer in Māori studies at Victoria University of Wellington, where he taught courses on the Te Tiriti o Waitangi/Treaty of Waitangi, Māori culture and society and tribal histories. He also lectured in the Masters of Development Studies on culture, religion and economic development. Prior to his university career (his third career), he was CEO of two national non-government organisations involved in international development, justice and peace, and has travelled extensively throughout Asia, the Pacific and Southern Africa.

Research | Current

  • Philosophy of Māoritanga and it's 4 well-beings; spiritual, environment, kinship-cultural, economic
  • Māori and Pacific business and economic histories
  • International development
  • APEC, globalisation, Austronesian and indigenous peoples
  • Māori Business Innovation Clusters in the seafood, tourism and forestry sectors
  • Social enterprise - Indigenous
  • Spiritual capital, ecological capital, kinship & social capital, economic capital
  • Indigenous peoples' economies of mana.
  • Whai Rawa: Māori Economy of Mana
  • Te Ohu Umanga: Entrepreneurial Teams
  • Capabilities Approach
  • Paradox of Wealth and Poverty Creation
  • Right to Development UN Jurisprudence
  • Oral Traditions as historical evidence

Teaching | Current

MĀORIDEV 720: Māori society: Te Takinga mai me Te Tai Ao

Course Prescription

The course surveys the Māori firm and Economy of Mana, capabilities and resources by examining the interaction of culture, society and commerce.  It considers the relevant regulatory environment as it pertains to Māori resource use and commercial development, Te Ture Whenua Act, the Māori Land Court, the New Zealand Companies Act 1993, and Charitable Trusts Act 1957 and the relevant findings and implications of the Waitangi Tribunal negotiations.

Goals of the Course

Course participants will examine, analyse and interpret past, present and future cultural, social and economic systems of Māoritanga, the integral Māori way of life. Emphasis is given to exploring the philosophical and cosmological foundations of Māoritanga. Students will also analyse resource use, in traditional and contemporary contexts, and review Waitangi Tribunal Claims that have resulted in Post-Settlement commercial developments utilising traditional resources, such as whenua, moana, awa and roto, and the impact of legislation and of regulatory bodies in supporting these developments.

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this course it is expected that the student will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate an understanding of the philosophy and application of Māoritanga, in the traditional and contemporary Māori Nation, its traditional firm, the Kāinga, and distinctive Economy of Mana;
  2. Identify events and other phenomena that have contributed to, or impeded Māori culture and society, particularly in terms of economic development;
  3. Develop the foundation for strategies and approaches that Māori might adopt to faclitate cultural, social and economic development;
  4. Conduct research that draws upon the Kaupapa Māori Research and Tikanga Māori paradigms; 
  5. Exhibit critical oral, reading, comprehension and academic writing skills, within the framework of Māori ways of knowing and learning.

Course Outline




Date 2017





21st June

Māori Nation, Austronesian origins & history, the East Polynesian migration, from tribes to nation





28th June

Kawa-tikanga-ritenga, Kaupapa Māori, Mātauranga Māori, Māoritanga - a philosophy of humanism & reciprocity






5th July

He Whenua rangatira: Economy of Mana, in pre-contact, early contact, colonial, and post-colonial eras

He Kāinga: Traditional Māori Firm






12th July


Māori renewal, mana motuhake, tino rangatiratanga: 1975-2016 - 2050






19th July

Ngā Ohu Umanga: Entrepreneurial Team Presentations


Assignment I hand-In


26th July


Politics, Government, legislation & Māori representation






2nd Aug

 Waitangi Tribunal, Māori Land Court, justice and capabilities






9th Aug

Inside Māori Business: Case studies





16th Aug

The international context, Māori trade - Austronesian nations; ASEAN, Free Trade Agreements (FTA), other indigenous peoples, globalisation



Essay Hand-In


23rd Aug



Envisaging new pathways and partnerships; new humanism & tradition






29th Aug

Final Exam


Final Exam

Learning and Teaching


The course is taught over ten weeks, normally on Tuesday evenings.

Time                     5.30pm – 8.30pm

Venue                  Graduate School of Management, Level 3, Owen G Glenn Building, 12 Grafton Road, Auckland


NOTE: We will discuss venue and time which will suit everyone.


Learning and teaching will comprise:

  • Lectures
  • On-line activities
  • Course readings
  • Videos
  • Student presentations
  • A final, open-book examination


Teaching Staff

Associate Professor Dr Mānuka Hēnare, Director Mira Szászy Research Centre for Māori and Pacific Economic Development, and senior lecturer Department of Management and International Business, UoA Business School

Phone                (09) 923 6862

Mobile                 (021) 706 651



Dr Ella Henry, Senior Lecturer

Te Ara Poutama, Room WB428, 55 Wellesley Street East

Auckland Central 1010

Phone   (09) 921 999 Ext 6097



Learning Resources

All lectures are presented via PowerPoint and are uploaded onto CANVAS after each lecturer.

Course readings are also available on CANVAS.

Link for CANVAS:


Assignment One  - Group Report & Presentation                                   20%

Assignment Two - Essay                                                                            20%

In-Class Participation                                                                                10%

Final Exam, 3 hour, open-book                                                                50%


The relationship between these assessments and the course learning outcomes is as follows:


Learning Outcomes

Assignment 1

Assignment 2



Final Exam





























Te Tuhituhi Tuatahi – Ngā Ohu Umanga Māori Report and Oral Presentation

Due:              19th July 2017

Topic:  Taonga in Māoritanga, pre-contact and contemporary

Ngā Tauira will form Ngā Ohu Umanga Māori, namely Māori Entrepreneurial Teams.  Each Ohu Umanga will select a tribal or geographic region, and one resource, activity or artefact, which was considered a “taonga”, i.e. something of spiritual and material value, in traditional, pre-contact Māoritanga. Ngā Ohu Umanga will conduct a comparative study of the cultural and economic value of the “taonga”, in traditional and contemporary Māori Nation Aotearoa and New Zealand. Taonga may comrpise geographic locations, such as moana, whenua, roto, motu, waahi tapu; or physical artefacts such as carvings, weaving; weaponry, flora, fauna, or specialist skills, e.g. mau rākau, kapa haka, whaikōrero.

Part I – Te Ohu Umanga Report, 1,500 – 2,000 words

The report will:

  • examine the “value” this taonga held in the traditional Māori world;
  • analyse the value and importance of the taonga in contemporary society and offer explanations why that value may have stayed the same or changed over time. 
  • utilise maps, photographs or other visual aids to better understand the subject matter;
  • be word-processed, Calibri, 12-front, 1.5 spacing;
  • include a reference list using APA 6th format

Part II – The Presentation, 20 minutes

Ngā Ohu Umanga will present their findings in-class.  Presentations might include:  a panel, a presentation from the entire Ohu Umanga, or selected speakers.

Presentations may make use of Whaikōrero, PowerPoint slides, videos, photographs, charts, graphs, and a hand-out for the audience.

Presentations will be up to 15 minutes in duration, allowing 5 minutes for setting up at the beginning, and questions at the end.

Marking for Parts I and II

Each Ohu Umanga will be allocated a mark out of 80, for their written project. The class will mark the presentation out of 10. This mark will also be given equally to each member. A further 10 marks will be derived from a Peer Evaluation, within each Ohu Umanga. In cases where only one member gives the oral presentation, other members of the Ohu will need to be introduced and the contributions they have made to the Ohu, and the final outcomes will need to be clarified.

Personal Development

This exercise affords the opportunity to build an Ohu Umanga Māori that is a Māori Entrepreneurial Team, manage Ohu dynamics, personal and Ohu motivation, and discipline. It will develop critical analysis, report-writing skills and presentation skills, emphasising brevity and clarity, making use of both descriptive and analytical writing. Students will draw on relevant Māori economic, historical and sociological literature to support their findings.


Te Tuhituhi Tuarua – Research Essay

Word Count: 1,500 – 2,000 Words                                          Due: 16th August 2017


Drawing on Kaupapa Māori & Mātauranga Māori business and economic principles and research methods, study one or more te Tiriti/Treaty settlements as a basis for exploring and analysing post-settlement strategies.  Discuss why and how such settlements have already impacted positively or not on sustainable economic development, including ecological economic development, cultural and social dimensions for those hapū-iwi or pan-tribal communities (e.g. in the case of fisheries, broadcasting, and spectrum). For tribal settlements, discuss the applicability of those strategies for other whānau-hapū-iwi, and any implications for Matā Waka (urban Māori) in those communities.

Personal Development

This assignment is an exercise in critical thinking and conceptualisation, writing for academic purposes, conducting Māori-focused research, drawing on Kaupapa Māori & Mātauranga Māori business and economic principles and research, and drawing on primary and secondary data sources.

He Kōrerorero Ohu: In-Class Participation

The grade will depend on attendance levels and on the quality and quantity of student contributions in class discussion and Ngā Ohu Umanga exercises in the class itself. This contribution will require you to have engaged with the relevant readings and to be fully engaged in class discussions and group exercises.

Te Uiui Mutunga: Final Examination:

The final examination on will be three hours, essay style and open book. It can be written in Māori or English or both.















90 – 100


85 – 89



80 – 84



Work of high to exceptionally high quality showing excellent knowledge and understanding of subject matter and appreciation of issues;

Well formulated arguments based on strong and sustained evidence;

Images, maps, diagrams, graphs, tables, etc. are included where appropriate;

Relevant literature referenced appropriately;

A high level of creative ability, originality and critical thinking, excellent communication and presentation skills.










75 – 79



70 – 74


65 – 69


Work shows a good to strong grasp of the subject matter and understanding of the major issues, though not necessarily all of the finer points;

Arguments are clearly developed and based on convincing evidence;

Relevant literature is referenced;

There is evidence of creative ability, originality and critical thinking, good communication and presentation skills.











60 – 64


55 – 59


50 – 54

Work shows a knowledge of subject matter and appreciation of the main issues, though possibly with some lapses and inadequacies;

Arguments developed and supported by some evidence and references;

Creative ability, originality and critical thinking are present but limited, there is evidence of adequate communication and presentation skills.











45 – 49



40 – 44

Work lacks breadth and depth. Work generally has gaps.

Frequently work of this grade takes a simple factual approach and understanding and coverage of material is inadequate, it does not attempt to interpret the material;

The work indicates a need for considerable effort to achieve improvement;

Communication and presentation skills are poor.




Māori Business Readings

Hēnare, Mānuka 2003. The Changing Images of Nineteenth Century Māori Society – From Tribes to Nation. PhD Thesis in Māori Studies, Victoria University of Wellington.

Petrie, Hazel (2006) Chiefs of Industry. Māori tribal Enterprise in Early Colonial New Zealand. Auckland: Auckland University Press.

Puckey, Adrienne (2011) Trading Cultures. A History of the Far North. Wellington: Huia Publishers.

Sen, Amartya (2000) Development as Freedom. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

General Readings

Cox, Lindsay. 1993. Kotahitanga. The Search for Political Unity. Auckland, Oxford University Press.

Henry, E. (2012). Te Wairua Auaha: emancipatory Māori entrepreneurship in screen production. Doctoral thesis, AUT, available on Scholarly Commons:

Kawharu, Merata (ed) 2002. Whenua. Managing Our Resources. Auckland, Reed.

Manalo, Emmanuel, Glenis Wong-Toi, Mei-Lin Hansen. 1997. The Business of Writing.  Written Communication Skills for Commerce Students. Auckland, Longman.

Metge, Joan. 1976. The Māoris of New Zealand. Rautahi. Revised edition. London, Routledge & Keegan.

Orange, Claudia. 1987. The Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington, Allen and Unwin/Port Nicholson.

Renwick, William (ed.) 1991. Sovereignty and Indigenous Rights. The Treaty of Waitangi in International Contexts. Wellington: Victoria University Press.

Shirres, Michael P. 1997.  Te Tangata: the human person. Auckland, Accent Publications.

Waitangi Tribunal. 2015 Report on Stage 1 of the Te Paparahi o Te Raki Inquiry

Waitangi Tribunal. 1997. Muriwhenua Land Report (Wai 45). Wellington, GP Publications.

Recommended Journals

University of Auckland Library                                                                                Call Number

Academy of Management Journal                                                                                                                                  658.05 A16j

Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resource                                                                                                                                  658.305 A83

Australian Journal of Management                                                                                                                                  658.05 A93

Business Week                                                                                                                                  658.05 B975

Management (NZ)                                                                                                                                  658.05 M267

New Zealand Herald                                                                                                 N/A

New Zealand Journal of Business                                                                                                                                  658.05 N53

The Harvard Business Review                                                                                                                        658.05 H33

The University of Auckland Business Review




The Academic Essay

The academic essay is a specialist form of writing, which offers arguments, for or against a proposition, or hypothesis, as means of developing, testing and validating theory. Theories are developed through hypotheses, e.g. Hypothesis = if one lets go of something it will fall to the ground. This hypothesis can be tested and proved, and helps us to understand the mechanics of gravity. Thus, theories help extend our understanding the world.

Essays can be descriptive (describe what something is like), or prescriptive (explain what something should be like). They are used to answer, or pose, questions. For the academic community the essay is a means of conveying the findings of research in an internationally recognised format. Essays must be rigorous to be acceptable to peers of the researcher, who evaluate that research and its findings. Rigorous” means that the findings given in the essay are based on extensive study, using recognised methods and drawing on existing knowledge to formulate an informed proposition, rather than expressing a personal opinion. The latter writing style is more commonly referred to as “journalise”, and is often found in newspapers or non-academic texts.

Secondary & Primary data

The academic literature and written sources, which are used as a reference, are termed “secondary data”, because the reader makes use of “second-hand” information, collected and analysed by someone else. Oral tradition, if published in a written format, or recorded as audio or video, is still considered secondary data, collected and curated by someone else. “Primary data” is first-hand, collected by the researcher, and may include observation, interviewing, surveying and experiments conducted either in the laboratory or field. When making use of ‘primary data’, as a university student, one needs to first gain ethics approval from that institution. Then, one needs to outline the methodology (method or means) used to collect the data. This enables the study to be replicated and ensures that research is rigorous. There are numerous examples of dubious research findings, which were later proven to be false or outrageous, either because the methodology was not rigorous or the researcher misrepresented their findings to promote their particular perspective. If students on this course consult with their elders, kaumātua and kuia, and seek their cultural expertise, one does not need ethics approval, because you are drawing on their specialist knowledge and skills. However, as Kaupapa Māori researchers, you must always act respectfully, and ethically, and adhere to institutional and Māori ethical principles.

Survey of Literature

To answer essay questions you should begin with a survey of the relevant literature (secondary data). We provide an extensive list of readings, which will be of value for each assignment, but it is strongly recommended that students extend their knowledge of written resources relating to these topics by making use of the libraries on and off campus. It is predominantly from the literature that the information, data and evidence will be found to support your conclusions and answers.





The University of Auckland regards cheating as a serious academic offence.

Plagiarism is a form of cheating.  In coursework assignments submitted for marking, plagiarism can occur if you use the work and ideas of others without explicit acknowledgment.  Work can be plagiarised from many sources, including books, journal articles, the internet, and other students’ assignments. A student’s assessed work may be reviewed against electronic source material using computerised detection mechanisms. Upon reasonable request, students may be required to provide an electronic version of their work for computerised review.

The way of avoiding plagiarism is to reference your work properly.  If you are in doubt about how to reference properly, ask someone – your lecturers, tutors and the Student Learning Centre are good places to start.  Please refer to the following website for further information about academic referencing:

The document Guidelines: Conduct of Coursework provides further advice on how to avoid plagiarism.  It can be found at:

The penalties for plagiarism can be severe, including losing some or all of the marks for the assignment.  Major offences can be sent to the University’s Discipline Committee, where further penalties can be imposed.







2014   Co-Recipient, NZ Educational Leadership & Administration Society (NZEALS) Visiting Scholar Award 2015; 2005 Beta Gamma Sigma Honour Society for Collegiate Schools of Business, University of Auckland Chapter inaugural member; 2015 and 1999 Visiting Fellow, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge University, UK., (July 2015; October 1999-March 2000); 1999 Honorary Visiting Associate, International Social Sciences Institute, Chisholm House, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, (June to September) 1990 Historical Branch Bursary, Department of Internal Affairs 1990 Recipient of the New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal 1987 Sir Peter Buck Memorial Bursary


  • Director, Mira Szászy Research Centre for Māori and Pacific Economic Development
  • Co-Theme Leader with Dr Shaun Awatere, Whai Rawa: Māori Economy, Ngā Pae o Te Māramatanga: CoRE (Māori Centre of Excellence)

Areas of expertise

Anthropology-Māoritanga, customs, Philosophy Māori business development, History-He Whakaputanga o Ngā Hapu o Nu Tireni/ Declaration of Independence of NZ 1835, Te Tiriti o Waitangi/Treaty of Waitangi International development

Committees/Professional groups/Services

  • University of Auckland Business School Dean's Award 2006
  • University of Auckland Business School's Distinguished Contribution Award 2010

Selected publications and creative works (Research Outputs)

  • Henare, M., Lythberg, B., Nicholson, A., Horan, J., Longmuir, K., & Peni, T. (2017). Janssen ethnic responsiveness — Understanding cultural drivers that impact on health disparities for Māori in Aotearoa-New Zealand. Mira Szászy Research Centre, University of Auckland Business School.
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Billie Lythberg, Amber Nicholson
  • Hēnare M, Lythberg, B., Nicholson, A., & Woods, C. (2017). Te Ohu Umanga Māori: Temporality and intent in the Māori entrepreneurial team. In Ben-Hafaïedh C, T. Cooney (Eds.) Research handbook on entrepreneurial teams: Theory and practice (pp. 208-230). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. 10.4337/9781784713263.00018
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Christine Woods, Billie Lythberg, Amber Nicholson
  • Lythberg, B., Woods, C., & Henare, M. (2017). 'When the river ran purple': Reframing Indigenous economics in a global city. In K. Nicolopoulou, M. Karatas-Ozkan, F. Janssen, J. Jermier (Eds.) Sustainable entrepreneurship and social innovation (pp. 187-209). Abingdon, U.K.: Routledge.
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Christine Woods, Billie Lythberg
  • Lythberg, B. J., Woods, C. R., & Henare, M. (2015). The Māori marae as a structural attractor. Paper presented at The 75th Academy of Management Conference, Vancouver, Canada. 7 August - 11 August 2015. Related URL.
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Billie Lythberg, Christine Woods
  • Lythberg, B. J., Henare, M., Woods, C., & Chilala, T. (2015). I am the river and the river is me. Paper presented at European Society for Oceanists 2015 Conference, Brussels, Belgium. 24 June - 27 June 2015. Related URL.
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Billie Lythberg, Christine Woods
  • NIcholson, A., Spiller, M., & Henare, M. A. (2015). Arohia te rangi o te hihiri: Heeding the melody of pure and potent energy. In M. M. Spiller, R. Wolfgramm (Eds.) Indigenous Spiritualities at Work: Transforming the Spirit of Enterprise (pp. 273-298). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishers.
    Other University of Auckland co-authors: Amber Nicholson, Rachel Wolfgramm

Contact details

Alternative contact

+64 21 706 651

Primary office location

Level 4, Room 4123
New Zealand